The transfer of the meaning of a text from one language to another.
This list contains tools, books, articles, blogs, courses and everything related to translations (t9n – translation, l10n – localization, g11n – globalization, m17n – multilingualization, i18n – internationalization, synonymous with globalization).
- Crowdin – Closed source cloud-based localization technology and services company.
- GitLocalize – Powerful localization platform that syncs with your GitHub repository and lets you continuously translate its content.
- LocaleApp – Effective app localization and translation.
- Transifex – Proprietary, web-based translation platform, globalization management system (GMS).
- Weblate – Platform for one of the most positive and empowering communities of libre software.
- Zanata – Web-based translation platform for translators, content creators and developers to manage localisation projects.
- Traduora – A platform for manage translation workflow in teams.
- SimpleLocalize – A simple translation management for software projects.
- RTranslator – The first simultaneous translator app for Android based on Google’s API.
- Crow Translate – A simple and lightweight translator for Linux and Windows that allows to translate and speak text using Google, Yandex and Bing translate API.
- Copy Translator – An app for Windows, Mac and Linux that automatically translate and adapt a text when copied in the clipboard.
- Electronjs i18n – I18n manager for Windows.
- OmegaT – Free translation memory application that works on Windows, macOS and Linux.
- Argos Translate – Completely open source offline translation app written in Python and based on OpenNMT. It can also be used as a Python library.
- LibreTranslate – 100% Self-Hosted web app to translate text, based on Argos Translate.
- deep-translator – A flexible free and unlimited (depending on the translator used) library written in Phyton to translate between different languages in a simple way using multiple translators, it can also be used directly in the prompt.
- react-i18next – Powerful internationalization framework for React / React Native which is based on i18next.
- MDN i18n – Functions to internationalize your browser extension. You can use these APIs to get localized strings from locale files packaged with your extension.
- npm i18n – Lightweight simple translation module with dynamic json storage.
- Ruby I18n – Rails internationalization (i18n) API.
- Quasar I18n – App internationalization (i18n) in Quasar framework.
- Vue I18n – Internationalization plugin for Vue.js.
- i18n Ally – Extension for VSCode, all in one about i18n.
- SwiftGoogleTranslate – A framework to use cloud translation API by Google in Swift.
- Translate – A set of software and documentation designed to help make the lives of localizers both more productive and less frustrating.
- Pootle – An online translation management tool with a translation interface focused on localization of applications’ graphical user interfaces. It is used by LibreOffice.
- Translator – A translator library based on the translation interface of Google, Yandex, Microsoft (Bing), Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent, NetEase (Youdao), Sogou, Deepl, etc.
- Bergamot – Client-side translation in the browser.
- Python-i18n – Python internationalization (i18n) package.
- Jsproxy for Crowdin – Technology aimed at helping teams effortlessly localize websites.
- attranslate – A tool for semi-automated translations of cross-platform apps or websites.
- Polyglot – A fast, painless, open-source internationalization plugin for Jekyll blogs.
- SimpleLocalize CLI – A CLI for finding translation keys in project files.
- Angular and i18n – Angular i18n guide.
- Debian manuals – Chapter 8: i18n and l10n.
- Developer Chrome i18n – Internationalizing your app.
- Software Globalization, Berkeley.edu – slides – “Software globalization and adding languages on computers and mobile devices” by Craig Cummings (slides).
- Stack Overflow Q&A-1 – Localization and internationalization, what’s the difference?
- Stack Overflow Q&A-2 – What is the actual differences between i18n/l10n/g11n and specifically what does each mean for development?
- W3C – Localization vs. internationalization.
- Flutter i18n – Internationalizing Flutter apps.
- Computer-assisted translation – CAT (computer-aided translation) tools are typically understood to mean programs that specifically facilitate the actual translation process. This article describe: translation memory software, language search-engine software, terminology management software, alignment software, interactive machine translation, augmented translation.
- Approaches to Machine Translation – A paper-review on different techniques for machine translation.
- Neural Machine Translation – A paper-review that trace back the origins of modern NMT architectures to word and sentence embeddings and earlier examples of the encoder-decoder network family. It will conclude with a short survey of more recent trends in the field.
- What is ‘hreflang’? – What is
hreflangattribute and how it can affect your SERP.
- Speakt – Well-rounded resource, offering in-depth information from the best professionals in the industry on everything related to translation.
- Lexico – Provides a collection of dictionaries of English and Spanish, and curiosities about many words and languages (in the “Explore” section). It is produced by Oxford University Press.
- The Translator’s Teacup – Contains good tips for beginner translators.
- Speaking of Translation – Run by two outstanding experts in the field of translation and localization. You can listen to audio files covering their tips and opinions on the freelance translator’s work.
- Between Translations – Run by Jayne Fox, a German into English translator. It talks about continuing professional development (CPD) for translators and the use of technology (especially CAT tools/TEnTs) to support their work.
- eMpTy Pages – Presents extremely detailed descriptions and opinions about localization management, collaborative translation platforms, translation management systems, machine translation, as well as the localization industry’s biggest players.
- UWashingtonX’s I18n and l10n – A collection of 3 courses of internationalization and internationalization for digital products provided by the University of Washington.
- Basic English Grammar and punctuation – English grammar course for beginners provided by the University of California.
- Intermediate English Grammar and punctuation – English grammar course for people with experience provided by the University of California.
- Advanced English Grammar and punctuation – English grammar course for experts provided by the University of California.
- Natural Language Processing – Teaches how to use machine learning to understand and manipulate human language. It requires a working knowledge of machine learning, intermediate Python experience including DL frameworks & proficiency in calculus, linear algebra, & statistics.
- Machine Translation – Explains the basic principles of translation algoritms. It is provided by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany).
- Statistical Machine Translation – Establishes background in NLP and statistics, then develops the basics through to current research. By the end readers can build their own translation systems. The author is Philipp Koehn.
- Neural Machine Translation – This introduction to machine translation starts from the basics of neural network methods and reaches the state of the art, while giving historical, linguistic, and applied context. Code examples in Python give a hands-on blueprint for implementation. The author is still Philipp Koehn.
- Translation: An advanced resource book for students – Introduces the theory and practice of translation from a variety of linguistic and cultural angles. The authors are Basil Hatim and Jeremy Munday.
- Google Crowdsource – Crowdsourcing platform developed by Google intended to improve a host of Google services through the user-facing training of different algorithms (with translation and translation validation section).
- Localizejs – Translations for websites and applications to new languages and streamline translation workflow.
- LocalizationLab – Global community of 7000+ contributors who support the translation and localization of Internet freedom tools.
- Pontoon – Various Mozilla localization projects.